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News and Research

Research and Publications

The Automotive Safety Program (ASP) is a program in the Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine.  Under the leadership of Co-Medical Directors Dr. Marilyn Bull and Dr. Joseph O’Neil, the ASP is actively involved in research to determne and report restraint practices in Indiana and to shape  outreach initiatives.

This section is devoted to research in which the ASP staff has been involved over approximately the last ten years and to manuscripts and reports resulting from the research. Click on the links to view available reports, complete papers, or abstracts of published manuscripts.  If not available, please check with the journal for their reprint policy.


Bull MD, Weber K, Talty J, Manary M. Crash Protection for Children in Ambulances. Recommendations and Procedures.Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 45th Annual Conference, Barrington, IL. pp. 353-367. 2001.

Child Safety Seat Inspection Station Report

The Automotive Safety Program supports a network of approximately 121 child safety seat inspection stations. Working with the Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine,  the Automotive Safety Program chose REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) for data entry and analysis of the check-up form, which is used to document each inspection.  REDCap is a software tool developed by Vanderbilt University, with collaboration from a consortium of institutional partners, of which IU has joined.  REDCap enables rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture, surveys, and reporting to support specific clinical and translational research projects.

Click here to read a report of inspection station activity, September 30, 2011 – October 1, 2012.


O’Neil, J, Bull MJ, Slaven, J, Talty J.  Grandparents and Child Passenger Safety. Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Nove; 49:354-9.

Indiana Observational Survey

During the summer months, child passenger safety technicians with the ASP conduct observational surveys of child passengers at 25 locations throughout Indiana. Funding for the surveys is provided by the Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.  Data from these surveys served as the basis for reports and publications listed under this heading.

Automotive Safety Program. Indiana University Center for Urban Policy and the Enviornment.  Indiana Child Passenger Safety Facts. Indiana Child Restraint Survey 2001-2006, Ages 5-15. January 2008.

Automotive Safety Program. Indiana University Center for Criminal Justice Research.  Indiana Child Passenger Safety Facts. Indiana Child Restraint Survey 2007, Ages 5-15. May 2008.

O’Neil, J. “Does Knowledge of Child Occupant Restraint Use Lead to Best Practice,” Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 48th Annual Conference, Boca Raton, FL. October 2004.

O’Neil J, Brizendine EJ, Robbins J, Bull MJ. “Methods to Increase Booster Seat Use in 4 to 6 Year Old Children,” Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 49th Annual Conference, Boston, MA. September, 2005.

O’Neil, Daniels DM, Talty JL, Bull MJ. Seat Belt Misuse among Children Transported in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats.  Accid Anal Prev. 2009 May; 41 (3):425-9.

O’Neil J, Bandy R, Talty J, Bull MJ. Drivers’ Reasons for Choosing Forward Facing Car Safety Seats. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011 Sept; 50(9):869-71.

O’Neil, Bull MJ, Talty J, Slaven JE.  Important Child Occupant Safety Trends, Indiana between 2005-2010. Ann Adv Automot Med. 2011, 55:27-32.

Special Needs Transportation

Huang P, Kallan MJ, O’Neil J, Bull MJ, Blum NJ, and Durbin DR. Children with Special Health Care Needs: Patterns of Safety Restraint Use, Seating Position, and Risk of Injury in Motor Vehicle Crashes.  Pediatrics. 2009 Feb; 123(2):518-23.

O’Neil J, Yonkman J, Talty J, Bull MJ. Transporting Children with Special Health Care Needs: comparing Recommendations and Practice.  Pediatrics. 2009 Augu; 124(2): 596-603.

Yonkman J, O’Neil J, Talty J, Bull MJ.  Brief Report. Transporting Children in Wheelchairs in Passenger Vehicles: A Comparison of Best Practice to Observed and Reported Practice in a Pilot Sample. Am J Occup Ther. Sept-Oct 2010:64(5)804-8.

O’Neil J. Bull MJ, Sobus K.  Issues and Approaches to Safely Transporting Children with Special Healthcare Needs. J Ped Rehab Med. 2011; 4(4):279-288.

Car seats, booster seats, seat belts and air bag safety for Little People; David D. Weaver, MD, Joe O’Neil, MD and Marilyn J. Bull, MD. LPA Today Magazine. Summer/Fall 2012, 24-26

Lawler B, Novak L, Talty J, Yonkman J. On the Go: Safely Transporting Children with Special Health Care Needs. OT Practice. June 3, 2013. 8-13.